Obverse
Obverse

Obverse

Obverse

Obverse

Reverse

Reverse

Obverse Detail

Obverse Detail

Obverse Stars

Obverse Stars

Star detail

Star detail

ZFC0174

U.S. 32 Star canton converted to a 34 Star Flag.

Sub-collection: Star Spangled Banner Flag House

Originally a 32 Star U.S. Flag converted to a 34 Star U.S. Flag.
The construction details of this flag indicate that it began with a 32 Star canton, for Minnesota's admission to the Union. While 32-star flags were official for a year, some manufacturers may have anticipated the 33 Star Oregon flag, as 32 star flags of any type are very scarce.

Because they became obsolete after only one year, many 32-star flags likely remained unsold in manufacturer's inventories. Then, with the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861, demand for 34 Star flags rapidly surpassed the supply. The prudent manufacturer of this printed 32 Star flag cut out several stars from other flags of the same style, hand-stitching two of them between the rows to create a new 34 Star flag. Several other examples of the printed 32 Star flags modified into 34 Star currently survive. Although there is a lack of evidence, there is reason to believe that these printed U.S. flags may have their origins from Annin & Company of New York City, a firm founded in 1847 and still in existence. Made during the presidency of James Buchanan, this flag was in service during the presidency of Abraham Lincoln.

Patterns of star arrangements can be observed to increase in variety in concurrence with the accession to the Union of every new state. When several flags of the same era are compared, a variety of materials can be seen. Nevertheless, official flags, by a large, continued to have been made of bunting and sometimes cotton and silk. The thirty-fourth state was Kansas, added in 1861. Although the secession of the South from the Union occurred that year, the flag of the United States persisted in including stars for all the American states, whether federal or confederate.

Exhibition History:
First Presidio Exhibit
(ZFC0174)
32-Star United States Flag, Modified to 34 Stars

Second Presidio Exhibit, 2003 GALLERY III
(ZFC0174)
32-Star United States Flag, Modified to 34 Stars

Provenance: Acquired by the Zaricor Flag Collection (ZFC0174) in 1996 from the Star-Spangled Banner Flag House Collection of Baltimore, MD.

Publication History:
Cooper, Grace Rogers, Thirteen Star Flags: Keys to Identification. Washington D.C., 1973, pp. 36-39.

Madaus, Howard M., Dr, Whitney Smith, The American Flag: Two Centuries of Concord and Conflict. Santa Cruz: VZ Publications, 2006, p. 62.

ZFC Significant Flag
Item is Framed

Sources:



Madaus, Howard M.- Whitney Smith, The American Flag: Two Centuries of Concord and Conflict, VZ Publications, Santa Cruz, 2006.

Mastai, Boleslaw and Marie-Louise D'Otrange, The Stars and The Stripes: The American Flag as Art and as History from the Birth of the republic to the Present, Knopf, New York, 1973.

32 Star Flag - (1858-1859) (U.S.), Flags of the World, 12 November 2011, from: http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/us-1858.html

34 Star Flag - (1861-1863) (U.S.), Flags of the World, 12 November 2011, from: http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/us-1861.html

Image Credits:
Zaricor Flag Collection




Hoist & Fly

Width of Hoist 74.5
Length of Fly 41.5

Union/Canton

Width of Union/Canton 37.5
Length of Union/Canton 22.25

Stars

Comments on Star Measurements 2 stars added to a 32 star flag.
Size of Stars 2.75

Stripes

Width of 1st Stripe 3.25
Width of 3rd Stripe 3.25
Width of 8th Stripe 3
Width of Last Stripe 3.5
Size of Hoist 1.5

Frame

Is it framed? yes
Frame Height 48
Frame Length 82

Stars

Number of Stars 34
How are the stars embeded? Printed
Are there stars on obverse? yes
Are there stars on reverse? yes

Stripes

Number of Stripes 13
Color of Top Stripe Red
Color of Bottom Stripe Red
Has a Blood Stripe? no

Nationality

Nation Represented United States

Fabric

Fabric Cotton
Comments on Fabric Bunting

Stitching

Stitching Hand
Comments on Stitching The hem and heading are stitched by machine. Two sections of the stripes' fabric and the union have been placed by hand. Stitched in place by hand are to additional stars.

Thread

Type of Thread 2 Ply
Thread Material Cotton
Comments on Thread Material The thread count is 59 by 38.

Weave

Type of Weave Plain

Attachment

Comments on Method of Attachmen 5 Whiped eyelets
Eyelet or grommett through header
Method of Attachment Whip-stitched

Applica

Applique Sides Single Faced = Mirror Image Reverse

Documentation

Documents






Drawings


Condition

Condition Good
Damage Flag contains some fading and holes.
Displayable yes

Date

Date Circa 1859-1863

Exhibits

Exhibition Copy First Presidio Exhibit
(ZFC0174)
32-STAR UNITED STATES FLAG (MODIFIED TO 34 STARS)
Date: 1858-1863
Stars: Stars: July 4, 1858-July 3, 1859 (Minnesota statehood May 11, 1858) 34 Stars: July 4, 1861-July 3, 1863 (Kansas statehood January 29, 1861).
Media: Printed cotton with two additional hand-sewn stars.
The style of manufacture of this flag shows that it began as a 32 Star flag, in honor of Minnesota's admission to the Union on May 11, 1858. The 32 Star flag became official on July 4th that year, but on February 14, 1859, Oregon was admitted to the Union. While the 32-star flag was official for a whole year, some manufacturers may have anticipated the 33-star Oregon flag by making some of them before July 4th, 1859. Because they became obsolete after only one year, many 32-star flags probably remained unsold in manufacturer's inventories for three years. Then, with the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861, demand for 34 Star flags rapidly surpassed the supply. The prudent manufacturer of this printed 32 Star flag cut out several stars from other flags of the same style, hand-stitching two of them between the rows to create a new 34 Star flag. Several other examples of the printed 32 Star flags modified into 34 Star currently survive. Although there is a lack of evidence, there is reason to believe that these printed U.S. flags may have their origins from Annin & Company of New York City, a firm founded in 1847 and still in existence. Made during the presidency of James Buchanan, this flag was in service during the presidency of Abraham Lincoln.
Provenance: Acquired by the Zaricor Flag Collection (ZFC0174) in 1996 from the Star-Spangled Banner Flag House Collection of Baltimore, MD.

Second Presidio Exhibit, 2003 GALLERY III
(ZFC0174)
32-Star United States Flag, Modified to 34 Stars
Comment:
The style of manufacture of this flag shows that it began as a 32 Star flag, in honor of Minnesota's admission to the Union on May 11, 1858. The 32 Star flag became official on July 4th that year, but on February 14, 1859, Oregon was admitted to the Union. While the 32-star flag was official for a whole year, some manufacturers may have anticipated the 33-star Oregon flag by making some of them before July 4th, 1859. Because they became obsolete after only one year, many 32-star flags probably remained unsold in manufacturer's inventories for three years. Then, with the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861, demand for 34 Star flags rapidly surpassed the supply. The prudent manufacturer of this printed 32 Star flag cut out several stars from other flags of the same style, hand-stitching two of them between the rows to create a new 34 Star flag. Several other examples of the printed 32 Star flags modified into 34 Star currently survive. Although there is a lack of evidence, there is reason to believe that these printed U.S. flags may have their origins from Annin & Company of New York City, a firm founded in 1847 and still in existence. Made during the presidency of James Buchanan, this flag was in service during the presidency of Abraham Lincoln.
Provenance: Acquired by the Zaricor Flag Collection (ZFC0174) in 1996 from the Star-Spangled Banner Flag House Collection of Baltimore, MD.

Publications

Publication Copy Madaus, Howard M., Dr, Whitney Smith, The American Flag: Two Centuries of Concord and Conflict. Santa Cruz: VZ Publications, 2006, p. 62.

32-Star United States Flag, Modified to 34 Stars

From its construction it is clear that this began as a 32-star flag, honoring Minnesotas entry into the Union on May 11, 1858. The flag became official on July 4th that year, but on February 14, 1859, Oregon was admitted to the Union. While the 32-star flag was official for a whole year, some manufacturers may have anticipated the new 33-star Oregon flag by making and selling it before July 4th, 1859. Because 32-star flags became obsolete after only one year, many probably remained unsold in manufacturers inventories. Two years after Oregon entered the Union, Kansas was admitted as the 34th state. With the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861, the demand for 34-star flags quickly outstripped supply. The frugal manufacturer of this printed 32-star flag cut out several stars from other flags of the same style, hand-stitching two of them between the rows to create a 34-star flag to meet consumer demand. Other examples survive of printed 32-star flags modified into the 34-star version. Although firm evidence is lacking, there is reason to believe that these printed cotton U.S. flags may have emanated from Annin & Company of New York City, a firm founded in 1847 and still in existence. Made during the presidency of James Buchanan, this flag was in service during the presidency of Abraham Lincoln.
Date: 1858 1863
Size: 41.5" hoist x 74.5" fly
32 Stars: July 4, 1858 July 3, 1859 (Minnesota statehood May 11, 1858)
34 Stars: July 4, 1861-July 3, 1863 (Kansas statehood January 29, 1861)
Media: Printed cotton with two additional hand-sewn stars
Provenance: Acquired by the Zaricor Flag Collection in 1996 from the
Star-Spangled Banner Flag House Collection of Baltimore, MD. ZFC0174