Obverse - edit
Obverse - edit

Obverse - edit

Book Photo - edit

Book Photo - edit

Obverse

Obverse

Book Photo

Book Photo

Onverse - 2

Onverse - 2

Obverse - edit 2

Obverse - edit 2

ZFC0630

U.S. 18 Star Exclusionary Flag.

Sub-collection: Mastai - Early American Flags

18 Star U.S. Abolitionist Exclusionary Flag - Isaac Hayes Arctic Expedition, 1860.
This flag flew on the schooner United States when it departed Boston harbor in 1860 on the Hayes Arctic Expedition. Only 18 stars, arranged in two concentric rings around a central star, representing union, despite the fact that 33 stars should have been represented in the canton. Given the Boston origins of the expedition, it is probable that the makers of this flag excluded stars for the 15 slave states from the union of this flag. During late 1860, rabid secessionists in several Southern states were already applying the same principle in reverse, making United States flags with only 15 stars (i.e. one for each of the slave states).

On the fourth day of March, 1861, Dr. Isaac Israel Hayes Hayes also hoisted this flag in honor of Abraham Lincoln, who was supposed to be the President of the United States, though the fact was not known until August 14, when the expedition arrived at Uppernavick on its return. The flag was made by F. L. Harris, and a curious circumstance connected with it is, that it was made with only eighteen stars, from lack of material. When the news of the election of Lincoln was received, five months afterwards, it was found that a rebellion had broken out in the Southern States, leaving only about eighteen States true to the Union.

Dr. Hayes returned from the Arctic Expedition to join the Union Army during the Civil War. Commissioned as a major and assigned as a surgeon to the Sattwell General Hospital in Philadelphia, he was eventually brevetted colonel for his service. He returned to the Arctic once more after the war before settling in New York City, which he represented in the New York State Assembly, until his death in 1881.

Exhibition History:

First Presidio Exhibit
(ZFC0630)
18-Star United States "Exclusionary Flag"

Exhibited in The American Flag, I and II.

Second Presidio Exhibit, 2003 Gallery III
(ZFC0630)
18-Star United States "Exclusionary Flag"

Private Showing
11 November 2008
Tiger 21 Meeting, Muir Room
Four Seasons Hotel, San Francisco, CA

Publication History:
Preble, Rear Admiral George Henry, History of the Flag of the United States, Boston, A. Williams & Co., 1880, P.387-388.

Madaus, Howard M., Dr, Whitney Smith, The American Flag: Two Centuries of Concord and Conflict. Santa Cruz: VZ Publications, 2006, p. 61.
Depicted in Mastai (1973), pp. 78-79.
Depicted in The American Flag, p. 61


Provenance:
• Made by F. L. Harris,1860/61.
• Dr. Isaac Hayes, 1861.
• Acquired by Mr. & Mrs. Boleslaw & Marie-Louise d'Otrange Mastai, New York City, and Amagansett, NY, The Mastai Collection, until 2002.
• Sold via Sotheby's Auction in New York City to the Zaricor Flag Collection, 2002.


Sources:



Madaus, Howard M.- Whitney Smith, The American Flag: Two Centuries of Concord and Conflict, VZ Publications, Santa Cruz, 2006.

Mastai, Boleslaw and Marie-Louise D'Otrange, The Stars and The Stripes: The American Flag as Art and as History from the Birth of the republic to the Present, Knopf, New York, 1973.

Preble, George Henry, The History of the Flag of the United States of America, Boston, Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 1894.

Image Credits:
Zaricor Flag Collection



Hoist & Fly

Width of Hoist 30
Length of Fly 47

Frame

Is it framed? yes
Frame Height 55
Frame Length 77

Stars

Number of Stars 18
How are the stars embeded? Sewn
Are there stars on obverse? no
Are there stars on reverse? no

Stripes

Number of Stripes 13
Color of Top Stripe Red
Color of Bottom Stripe Red
Has a Blood Stripe? no

Nationality

Nation Represented United States

Fabric

Fabric Cotton

Attachment

Comments on Method of Attachmen Eyelet or grommett through header
Method of Attachment Whip-stitched

Applica

Applique Sides Single Faced = Mirror Image Reverse

Documentation

Research Documents























Public Copy & Signs



Condition

Condition Good
Damage Used, worn
Displayable yes

Date

Date 1860s

Exhibits

Exhibition Copy Exhibition History
First Presidio Exhibit
(ZFC0630)
18-STAR UNITED STATES "EXCLUSIONARY" FLAG
Date: 1860
Medium: Cotton; hand-stitched
Comment: This flag flew on the ship United States when it departed Boston harbor in 1860 on the Hayes Arctic Expedition. Only 18 stars, arranged in two concentric rings around a center star, grace the union of this flag, although 33 stars should have been represented in the canton. Given the Boston origin of the expedition, it is probable that the makers of this flag excluded stars for the 15 slave states from the union of this flag. During late 1860, rabid secessionists in several Southern states were already applying the same principle in reverse, making United States flags with only 15 stars (i.e. one for each of the slave states).
Provenance: Acquired by the Zaricor Flag Collection (ZFC0630) in 2002 from the Mastai Flag Collection of New York City through auction at Sotheby's.


Second Presidio Exhibit, 2003 - GALLERY III
(ZFC0630)
18-Star United States "Exclusionary Flag"
Date: 1860 Medium:
Cotton; hand-stitched
Comment: This flag flew on the ship United States when it departed Boston harbor in 1860 on the Hayes Arctic Expedition. Only 18 stars, arranged in two concentric rings around a center star, grace the union of this flag, although 33 stars should have been represented in the canton. Given the Boston origin of the expedition, it is probable that the makers of this flag excluded stars for the 15 slave states from the union of this flag. During late 1860, rabid secessionists in several Southern states were already applying the same principle in reverse, making United States flags with only 15 stars (i.e. one for each of the slave states.)
Provenance: Acquired by the Zaricor Flag Collection (ZFC0630) in 2002 from the Mastai Flag Collection through auction at Sotheby's of New York City.
PDF for Publications
Preble - ZFC0630

Publications

Publication Copy Preble, Rear Admiral George Henry, History of the Flag of the United States, Boston, A. Williams & Co., 1880, P.387.

"…On the fourth day of March, 1861, Dr. Hayes hoisted a flag in honor of Abraham Lincoln, who was supposed to be the President of the United States, though the fact was not known until August 14, when the expedition arrived at Uppernavick on its return. The flag was made by F. L. Harris, and a curious circumstance connected with it is, that it was made with only eighteen stars, from lack of material. When the news of the election of Lincoln was received, five months afterwards, it was found that a rebellion had broken out in the Southern States, leaving only about eighteen States true to the Union."


Madaus, Howard M., Dr, Whitney Smith, The American Flag: Two Centuries of Concord and Conflict. Santa Cruz: VZ Publications, 2006, p. 61.
This flag flew on the ship United States when it departed Boston harbor during the James Buchanan presidency in 1860 on the Arctic Expedition led by Dr. Isaac Israel Hayes. Only 18 stars, arranged in two concentric rings around a center star, grace the union of this flag, although 33 stars should have been represented in the canton. Given the Boston origin of the expedition, the makers of this flag excluded stars for the 15 slave states from the union of this flag. During late 1860, rabid secessionists in several Southern states were already applying the same principle in reverse, making United States flags with only 15 stars-one for each of the slave states. Dr. Hayes returned from the Arctic Expedition and joined the Union Army during the Civil War. Commissioned as a major and assigned as a surgeon to the Sattwell General Hospital in Philadelphia, he was eventually brevetted colonel for his service. He returned to the Arctic once more after the war before settling in New York City, which he represented in the New York State Assembly, until his death in 1881.
Flag Books
All original documents and drawings are held in the Zaricor Flag Collection Archives.