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ZFC0407

U.S. Infantry Regimental Color, 18th Infantry.

Sub-collection: Howard M. Madaus - Civil War & 19th Century Military Collection

U.S. Infantry Regimental Color, 18th U. S. Regular Infantry
The design of the regimental color carried by the U.S. Army Infantry can be traced to the period immediately after the American Revolution. During that war, Army troops carried a pair of colors, one flag of a hue that matched the trim of their uniform, the other of blue, which was considered to be the national color. At first these colors were decorated with distinctive devices easily recognized by each regiments enlisted men and officers. After the war, however, the multiplicity of devices was replaced by a common symbol, the coat of arms of the United States. The blue flag with the U.S. arms served the U.S. Army as its national standard until the 1830s. Beginning in that decade, troops in the field were finally permitted to carry the Stars and Stripes.

The 18th Regiment of United States Regular Infantry was formed in 1861 as part of the Lincoln administrations expansion of the Army to meet the secession crisis. The 18th served in the western campaigns (in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Georgia) during the Civil War, with noteable service at Murfreesboro (Stones River) and Chickamauga. After the War, the 18th was sent West to garrison the Bozeman Trail through Wyoming Territory. It garrisoned Fort Phil Kearny in 1866 during the events leading to the Fetterman Massacre.

This was the 18th U.S. Regular Infantry's regimental color in the period from 1865 through 1866. In the latter year, the 18th U.S. was garrisoned a Fort Phil Kearny in Wyoming Territory during the "Fetterman Fight." When Fort Phil Kearny was abandoned, the adjutant of the 18th Infantry took this flag with him and it eventually passed to his descendants.

The field is made of dark blue banner silk, machine-stitched, and edged on three sides with a 2" twisted yellow silk fringe. There are thirty-five stars, painted gold, on the obverse side and reverse sides, for two arcs (18 over 17) over the fully painted rendition of the coat-of-arms of the United States (an eagle with a sky blue scroll held in its beak bearing the motto: "E PLURIBUS UNUM." A three-piece red scroll (edged in gold) below the coat-of-arms bears the inscription: "EIGHTEENTH"- "REGIMENT,"- " INFANTRY." Flag attached with sleeve.

The Howard Michael Madaus sub-collection of Civil War Military Flags was assembled from a variety of sources over a thirty-year period of collecting (1970-2000) before being acquired by the Zaricor Flag Collection in 2000. The collection attempts to present an example of each of the major types of depot contractor regulation flags and colors carried by Union forces at the basic unit level, i.e. regiment, battalion, company, and battery, as well as the types of general military flags.

This sub-collection (Howard Michael Madaus collection) added to the Zaricor Civil War collection is the largest and (while not complete) most comprehensive collection of the military flags carried by the Union Army during the Civil War outside of state repositories designated by the War Department for the disposition of these flags after the War or in public museum collections. In fact this private collection is larger and more comprehensive than many of the public museum collections in the United States. This section, US // Regimental / Standard, does not contain the entire collection of Civil War flags from the Madaus and Zaricor Collections because it is specific to US infantry regimental flags, which are only one part of the collections.

Exhibition History:
First Presidio Exhibit
(ZFC0407)
U.S. Infantry Regimental Color (18th United States Regular Infantry)

Second Presidio Exhibit, 2003 - Gallery III
(ZFC0407)
United States Infantry Regimental Color, 18th U. S. Regular Infantry

Publication History:
Woodhead, Henry, Editor, Howard Michael Madaus, (Civil War Flag Authority) Echoes of Glory: Arms and Equipment of The Union - Flags. Alexandria, Time-Life Books, 1998. P. 261.

Madaus, Howard M., Dr, Whitney Smith, The American Flag: Two Centuries of Concord and Conflict. Santa Cruz: VZ Publications, 2006, p. 71.

Schrambling, Regina, "A Lifelong Pledge." Collection, Published by Robb Report, June 2014, p. 50.


Provenance:
• 18th U.S. Infantry Regiment, 1861-1866.
• Retained as a memento of service by Captain (later General) Gilbert Saltonstall Carpenter, until passing, 1899.
• By descent in the Carpenter family until, 1961.
• Sold to Mr. Norm Flayderman, then of New Milford, Connecticut, until 1962.
• Sold to Mr. Frederick Benkovic, then of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, until, 1972.
• Sold to Howard M. Madaus of Cody, Wyoming, until 2000.
• Acquired by the Zaricor Flag Collection from the Madaus Flag Collection of Cody, WY, in 2000.

Sources:



Madaus, Howard M.- Whitney Smith, The American Flag: Two Centuries of Concord and Conflict, VZ Publications, Santa Cruz, 2006.

Madaus, Howard M., correspondence to Ben Zaricor, 29 March 2000, Zaricor Flag Collection Archives.

US Army Quartermaster General, Flags of the Army of the United States carried during the War of the Rebellion, 1861-1865, to designate the headquarters of the different armies, army corps, divisions and brigades, Washington, D.C., 1887.
Todd, Frederick P., American Military Equipage 1851-1872, Volume 2, Providence, The Company of Military Historians, 1977.

Woodhead, Henry, ed., Flags, Echoes of Glory: Arms and Equipment of The Union, New York, Time Life Books, 1998.

Katcher, Phillip, Flags of the American Civil War, 2: Union, London, Osprey, 1993.

18th Infantry Regiment (United States), Wikipedia, 13 November 2011, from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/18th_Infantry_Regiment_%28United_States%29

Image Credits:
Zaricor Flag Collection

CSG
USAC

xyz



Hoist & Fly

Width of Hoist 75
Length of Fly 71

Stars

Comments on Star Measurements Painted Gold

Frame

Is it framed? yes
Frame Height 80
Frame Length 96

Stars

Number of Stars 35
How are the stars embeded? Painted
Are there stars on obverse? yes
Are there stars on reverse? yes

Stripes

Has a Blood Stripe? no

Crest/Emblem

Description of Crest/Emblem Eagle + Text : "E PLURIBUS UNUM" & "EIGHTEENTH REGIMENT INFANTRY"

Nationality

Nation Represented United States

Fabric

Fabric Silk

Stitching

Stitching Machine

Attachment

Method of Attachment Sleeve

Applica

Applique Sides Double Faced = Reads correctly on both sides

Documentation

Documents





Drawings

Research Documents


















Public Copy & Signs



Condition

Condition Good
Damage Used
Displayable yes

Date

Date 1863-1865

Exhibits

Exhibition Copy Exhibition History
First Presidio Exhibit
(ZFC0407)
U.S. INFANTRY REGIMENTAL COLOR (18TH UNITED STATES REGULAR INFANTRY)
Date: 1863-1865
Media: Silk; designs painted in oil
Comment: The design of the regimental color carried by the U.S. Army Infantry can be traced to the period immediately after the American Revolution. During that War, Army troops did not bear the Stars and Stripes in battle. Instead they carried a pair of colors, one flag of a hue that matched the trim of their uniform, the other of blue, which was considered to be the national color. At first these colors were decorated with distinctive devices easily recognized by each regiments enlisted men and officers. After the War, however, the multiplicity of devices was replaced by a common symbol, the coat of arms of the United States. The blue flag with the U.S. arms served the U.S. Army as its national standard until the 1830s. Beginning in that decade, troops in the field were finally permitted to carry the Stars and Stripes. The old blue colors of the infantry units were still carried, but now as a units regimental color. That practice continues to the present day. The 18th Regiment of United States Regular Infantry was formed in 1861 as part of the Lincoln administrations expansion of the Army to meet the secession crisis. The 18th served in the western campaigns (in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Georgia) during the Civil War, with note-worthy service at Murfreesboro (Stones River) and Chickamauga. After the War, the 18th was sent west to garrison the Bozeman Trail through Wyoming Territory. It garrisoned Fort Phil Kearny in 1866 during the events leading to the Fetterman Massacre. When Fort Phil Kearny was abandoned, the adjutant of the 18th Infantry took this flag with him and it eventually passed to his descendants.
Provenance: Acquired by the Zaricor Flag Collection (ZFC0407) in 2000 from the Madaus Flag Collection of Cody, WY; previously in the Benkovic Collection and the collection of Norm Flayderman.


Second Presidio Exhibit, 2003 - Gallery III
(ZFC0407)
United States Infantry Regimental Color, 18th U. S. Regular Infantry

Date: 18631865
Media: Silk; designs painted in oil
Comment: The design of the regimental color carried by the U.S. Army Infantry can be traced to the period immediately after the American Revolution. During that war, Army troops carried a pair of colors, one flag of a hue that matched the trim of their uniform, the other of blue, which was considered to be the national color. At first these colors were decorated with distinctive devices easily recognized by each regiments enlisted men and officers. After the war, however, the multiplicity of devices was replaced by a common symbol, the coat of arms of the United States. The blue flag with the U.S. arms served the U.S. Army as its national standard until the 1830s. Beginning in that decade, troops in the field were finally permitted to carry the Stars and Stripes. The 18th Regiment of United States Regular Infantry was formed in 1861 as part of the Lincoln administrations expansion of the Army to meet the secession crisis. The 18th served in the western campaigns (in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Georgia) during the Civil War, with noteable service at Murfreesboro (Stones River) and Chickamauga. After the War, the 18th was sent West to garrison the Bozeman Trail through Wyoming Territory. It garrisoned Fort Phil Kearny in 1866 during the events leading to the Fetterman Massacre. When Fort Phil Kearny was abandoned, the adjutant of the 18th Infantry took this flag with him and it eventually passed to his descendants.
Provenance: Acquired by the Zaricor Flag Collection (ZFC0407) in 2000 from the Madaus Flag Collection of Cody, WY.


UNITED STATES REGIMENTAL COLOR,
NEW YORK QUARTERMASTERS DEPARTMENT DEPOT CONTRACT,
18TH REGIMENT UNITED STATES INFANTRY, 1865-1866.
(Madaus collection no. 2)
(ZFC0407)

DESCRIPTION

The field of this flag consists of a single, unseamed layer of dark blue banner silk, measuring 71 on its hoist by 76 on its fly, exclusive of the 2 yellow silk fringe that circumvents all by the hoist side. The hoist side has been doubled over and sewn to form a sleeve, 2 1/4 wide when flat, for the staff. In accordance with army regulations promulgated first in 1841 (which description continued unchanged through the Civil War), this flag bears (in paint rather than embroidery) a full color rendition of the coat-of-arms of the United States. On this flag, the coat-of-arms occupies the center of both sides of the field, the relatively large eagle (typical of the contract products delivered to the New York City quartermasters depot from 1862 to 1865) in its full natural colors with greys and browns predominating, and bearing on its breast a full color-- red, white, and blue with a gold border and divide) shield of the United States, i.e. a chief of blue surmounting thirteen alternating red and white vertical bars. In the eagles right talon is a group of six gold arrows; in the left talon is a naturally colored olive branch with green leaves and red berries. From the eagles beak emanates a 2 wide sky blue scroll with 1/4 wide gold edge, bearing the motto of the United States E PLURIBUS/UNUM. in gold painted 1 1/2 high Roman uncial letters, having a black shadow. The eagle is surmounted by a double arc (18 over 17) of gold painted, 5-pointed stars, each measuring 1 1/2 to 1 3/4 across their points. Also, in accordance with army regulations, below the coat-or-arms, appearing properly on both sides, is a painted, three piece scroll (the center portion raised), red, 3 1/4 wide, inclusive of a 3/8 wide gold edge, terminating at each end with a gold flourish. This scroll bears the regimental designation in gold, 2 high Roman uncial letters: EIGHTEENTH/REGIMENT, /INFANTRY.
The flag is in very good condition and has been netted with crepoline mesh by Welter Studios of St. Paul, Minnesota during the period from March to October of 1975.

PROVENANCE

This flag was acquired by purchase in 1972 from Mr. Frederick Benkovic, then of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Mr. Benkovic purchased the flag directly from Mr. Norm Flayderman, then of New Milford, Connecticut (now of Fort Lauderdale, Florida) in 1962. (It did not appear in Mr. Flaydermans bi-annual catalogues, but was rather acquired direct through correspondence.) At the time, because the same flag had appeared in a Life magazine article at the time of the beginning of the Civil War Centennial (Life- 17 March 1961, a copy of the appropriate page of which is attached), it was thought to be the regimental color issued to the 18th New York Infantry (a two year regiment that served from 17 May 1861 until 28 May 1863) issued at the time of its expiration of service. This identification later proved to be a mistake; however, in the interim the flag appeared, misidentified to the 18th New York Infantry in the published papers of the Pennsylvania Capitol Preservation Committees Flag Symposium (p. 80), and in Time-Lifes Echoes of Glory: Arms and Equipage of the Union (Alexandria: Time-Life, 1991), p. 261. Shortly after the publication of the latter book, I contacted Mr. Norm Flayderman in Florida and asked him whence he had acquired this flag, reminding him that it had appeared in the 1961 Life magazine article with the 18th New York Infantry identification. His response (see attachment) of 27 September 1993 proved most revealing. In his letter, Mr. Flayderman acknowledged that the caption appearing in the 1961 Life article was erroneous. Rather than obtaining the flag from a descendant of the 18th New York Infantry, Mr. Flayderman had acquired the flag from the descendants of Lieutenant (subsequently Captain and in other units of higher rank until retiring at the rank of Brigadier-General on 26 December 1899) Gilbert Saltonstall Carpenter.

HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE


Rising from the ranks from Private, to Sergeant to 1st Sergeant in Company F, 2nd Battalion, 18th Regiment U.S. Infantry (a new unit of the regular army established in 1861), G.S. Carpenter was commissioned a 2nd Lieutenant in that regiment on 9 June 1862, 1st Lieutenant in the same unit on 25 November 1862, and captain in the same regiment on 21 December 1866. He subsequently transferred to the 45th Infantry and then the 14th, and the 4th, and the 7th U.S. Infantry at various times after January of 1867. (See p. 284 of Francis B. Heitmans Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army From the Organization, September 29, 1789, to March 2, 1903, Volume I.) Although not shown in Heitman, it is thought that Carpenter served as regimental adjutant for the regiment while 1st Lieutenant (the rank appropriate for that regimental staff position.) serving at Fort Philip Kearny In that capacity he would have been in charge of the regimental records and regimental property.
It is my opinion that Carpenter acquired this flag during his service with the 18th U.S. Infantry in 1865 and 1866. This blue regimental flag is, in my opinion, the complimentary color to the national color (collection no. 2629) in the collections of the West Point Museum.
The flag itself is of the pattern supplied under contract to the New York City Quartermasters Department depot. Beginning in February of 1862, consequent to the assumption of responsibility for equipping and uniforming state volunteers, the New York City depot began contracting with various New York City firms for sets of national and regimental colors. Suppliers/contractors included F. Fox (who furnished 50), Paton & Company (who furnished 20), S.A. Hull (who furnished 25), A. Ertle (who furnished 175) and the brothers William and Alexander Brandon. These two siblings furnished the vast majority (456 of the 736) regimental infantry colors delivered to the New York City depot. They also provided the vast majority of the complimenting U.S. national colors that were issued with these regimental colors. It is thought that this blue regimental color is from one of their deliveries in 1864.
The formation of the 18th Regiment United States Infantry was authorized by War Department General Orders, No. 16, on 4 May 1861. (published in the Official Records, Series III, Vol. 1, pp. 154-157.) This order expanded the U.S. regular army by eight regiments (11th through 19th U.S. Infantry). Moreover, it redefined the regimental structure from a single battalion of 10 companies to a three battalion organization, with each company having 8 companies. Recruiting for the 18th Regiment U.S. Infantry began at Columbus, Ohio, and on 2 December 1861 enough companies had been organized to permit sending the regiment to Kentucky. There the regiment was brigaded with other newly formed units of the Regular Army and assigned to the Army of the Ohio (afterwards the Army of the Cumberland). The regiment fought notably at Stones River (Murfreesboro) on 30 December 1862-2 January 1863; Chickamauga on 19-20 September 1863, and during the Atlanta Campaign from May through September of 1864. Thereafter the unit (and the other forces of the new Regular Army) was assigned to garrison duty at Chattanooga, where it remained until July of 1865.
During its garrison service at Chattanooga, the each (1st and 2nd) Battalion of the 18th U.S. Infantry received a new set of colors; the national color of each battalion under this issue was from the stores obtained by the Philadelphia Clothing Depot of the Q.M. Department; the blue regimental color of each battalion under this issue came from the Longley & Bro. contracts with the Cincinnati Clothing Depot. Both the national color and the regimental color of each battalion were decorated with battle honors that reflected the service of the battalions through September of 1864. (The national color of the 1st Battalion, 18th Infantry is now collection no. 2626 at the West Point Museum; the corresponding regimental color of the same battalion is in the same collection as no. 2631. The national color the 2nd Battalion, 18th U.S. Infantry is now collection no. 2628 at the West Point Museum; the corresponding regimental color is in private hands in Kentucky. Xeroxes of the three in the West Point collection are appended.)
On 21 September 1866, the battalion structure that Congress had retroactively authorized on 29 July 1861 for the regiments formed under War Department orders of 4 May 1861 were redesign Ted. The 1st Battalion of each of the eight regiments retained the regimental number under which it had been organized. The 2nd Battalion and the 3rd Battalion (if raised) were renumbered in eight number sequences starting with the 20th U.S. Infantry and extending to the 37th U.S. Infantry. As a result of the elimination of the battalion system, new colors were needed for all of the newly formed regiments. The reorganized 18th U.S. Infantry drew a new 35 star national color from the stock of colors acquired by the New York City Q.M. depot, and had it decorated with the regimental designation on the center stripe and the battles in which the unit had participated on its other stripes. This flag is currently collection no. 2629 in the collections at the West Point Museum (see attached Xerox). This flag continued in service until about 1877, when another New York City Q.M. depot color was drawn, this time, however, a 35 star national color to which 3 additional stars had been added to the canton. This flag is currently no. 2630 in the West Point Museum collection, and is similarly inscribed to the 35 star N.Y. depot national color. (see attached Xerox.) No complimenting regimental color survives for either flag. However, the blue regimental color mentioned in this report is also a New York City depot product and bears 35 stars; accordingly it is my opinion that this flag is the mate to no. 2629 at the West Point Museum and that it was acquired by Lt. (afterwards Captain) Carpenter during his stay at Fort Philip Kearny in 1866. It is notable that this flag would have been at the regimental headquarters of the 18th U.S. Infantry at Fort Phil Kearny during the events that surrounded the Fetterman Massacre that befell the 18th U.S. Infantry on 21 December 1866, the same day that 1st Lt. Carpenter received his commission as Captain and three weeks before he departed for service with the 45th U.S. Infantry.

Supporting documents.

A. Scale drawing (1=1) of New York City depot contract color of the 18th U.S. Infantry.
B. Transcript list of contracts for Regimental Colors from National Archives records.
C. Xerox copy of letter of Norm Flayderman & Co. Inc., dated 27 September 1993 to Howard Madaus, Curator of the Winchester Museum, Buffalo Bill Historical Center) providing background on the acquisition of the flag of the 18th U.S. Infantry by him (2 pages); a copy of the appropriate page (284) from Heitman that he enclosed (1 page), and a xerox of the Life magazine illustration from 17 March 1961 that depicts Mr. Flayderman with the flag in question (2 pages- split)
D. Original full color illustration of Mr. Flayderman with the color of the 18th New York [sic- U.S. Regular] Infantry regimental color, taken from the issue of 17 March 1961, Life magazine.
E. Xerox copy of page 1715 of Dyers Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, showing the service of the 18th U.S. Infantry during the Civil War.
F. Xeroxes of photographs and data identifications of West Point Museum catalogue numbers 2626, 2631, 2628, 2629, and 2630, being the national and regimental colors of the 18th U.S. Infantry in that collection.
PDF for Publications
Robb Report - June 2014
Echoes of Glory - Union - Flags - ZFC Collection items

Publications

Publication Copy Madaus, Howard M., Dr, Whitney Smith, The American Flag: Two Centuries of Concord and Conflict. Santa Cruz: VZ Publications, 2006, p. 71.

United States Infantry Regimental Color 18th U. S. Regular Infantry

The design of the regimental color carried by the U.S. Army Infantry can be traced to the 1790s. During the Revolution, Army troops were supposed to carry a
pair of colors, one that matched their uniform trim, the other of blue. At first both these colors were decorated with distinctive devices easily recognized by each regiments enlisted men and officers. After the war, however, the multiplicity of devices was replaced by a common symbol, the coat of arms of the United States. The blue flag with the U.S. arms served the U.S. Army as its national standard until the 1830s. Beginning in that decade, troops in the field were finally permitted to carry the Stars & Stripes. The 18th Regiment of United States Infantry was formed in 1861 as part of Lincolns expansion of the Army to meet the secession crisis. The 18th served in the western campaigns (in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Georgia) during the Civil War. After the War, the 18th was sent West to garrison the Bozeman Trail. It garrisoned Fort Phil Kearny in 1866 during the events leading to the Fetterman Massacre. When Fort Phil Kearny was abandoned, the adjutant of the 18th Infantry took this flag with him and it eventually passed to his descendants.
Date: 1863 1865
Size: 71" hoist x 75" fly
Media: Silk; designs painted in oil
Provenance: Acquired by the Zaricor Flag Collection in 2000 from the Madaus Flag Collection of Cody, WY.
ZFC0407