Republic of Hawaii 1894-1898.

Sub-collection: Chicago Historical Society

Republic of Hawaii 1894-1898, Hawaiian Consul General in Chicago, IL.
The Republic of Hawaii was declared on the 4th of July 1894 and was the last of several pseudo-republics that marked the expansion of the United States of under a uniquely American cultural belief system known as Manifest Destiny.

It was a historical assertion of the early American settlers that the United States was destined, divinely ordained even, to expand from 'sea to shining sea'. This referred to an East-West expansion across the North American continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Sometimes, the Manifest Destiny was interpreted in a highly liberal sense so as to mean the eventual unification of all of North American; including Canada, Central America and Cuba. Obviously the same concept has been easy to mould into justificatory support for filibustering, war and American intervention in the domestic affairs of other countries.

Other similar republics, some nominal, others functional; but all generally friendly to American interests include:

Republic of West Florida - 23 September to 27 October 1810
Republic of Texas 2 March 1836 to 19 February 1845
California Republic 14 June to 9 July 1846
Republic of Hawaii 4 July 1894 to 4 July 1899

In all cases, American commercial and political interests, harboring either some real or imagined grievance over the nominal power, took action which resulted in a proclamation of independence followed by a request for annexation, and eventual admittance into the United States.

Documented flags from the short lived republican period of Hawaii (1894 to 1898) are almost unknown. In 1894, This flag was sent to the Hawaiian Consul General in Chicago, Illinois, Mr. Frederick W. Job, who served Hawaiian interests in Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana and Wisconsin.

The flag was made in Honolulu by the newly established W.W. Ahana Co. Ltd., which was established a decade before, in 1884. The W.W. Ahana Co. were merchant tailors with a specialty in the Finest of English and American Woolen and Worsted Goods. It was not uncommon to see flags made by tailors in the 19th century.

This flag was sent to the Hawaiian Consul General in Chicago for use at the consulate located on the 14th floor of the Marquette Building at 140 South Dearborn Street; it was one of Chicago's most prestigious addresses. The 16 story Marquette Building was a landmark while being built as it was the first steel frame building in Chicago; and tall enough to accommodate a flag of this size.

As a republic, Hawaii had both an ambassador and charge-de-affairs in Washington, DC and also Consul Generals in New York, NY; Boston, MA; Chicago, IL; and San Francisco. Hawaii also maintained consulates in Philadelphia, PA; Portland, OR; Port Townsend, Tacoma & Seattle, WA; San Diego, CA and Detroit, MI. It is not known if any other consular flags from the Hawaiian Republic have survived.

According to documents accompanying this flag, Consul General Job stated that this was the first Hawaiian republic flag sent to the United States. No doubt retained by him, it was subsequently donated to the Chicago Historical Society in 1928; and then acquired by the Tumbling Waters Museum of Flags after deaccession.

ZFC Significant Flag

• Made by the W.W. Ahana Co, Honolulu, HI, 1894.
• Sent to Hawaiian Consul General Mr. Frederick W. Job, Hawaiian Consulate, Chicago, Illinois, 1894.
• Retained as a memento of service by Mr. Jobs, until 1928.
• Donated to the Chicago Historical Society, held until deaccession in 1960s.
• Acquired by the Tumbling Waters Museum of Flags, Montgomery Alabama, until dissolution, 1990s.
• By repute to Alabama Historical Association, until disposal, 2000s.
• Acquired at auction by Zaricor Flag collection from Edwin Miller, Autaugaville, Alabama, 2009.


Republic of Hawaii, Wikipedia, Wikipedia, 17 November 2011, from:

Hawaii: historical flags, Flags of the World, 17 November 2011, from: http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/us-hi_hi.html

Thurm, Thomas G., Hawaiian & American Almanac, Honolulu, 1907.
Manifest Destiny, Wikipedia, 17 November 2011, from:

Marquette Building, Wikipedia, 17 November 2011, from:

Image Credits:
Zaricor Flag Collection

Hoist & Fly

Width of Hoist 142
Length of Fly 268


Width of Union/Canton 66.75
Length of Union/Canton 133


Width of 1st Stripe 17.25
Width of 3rd Stripe 17.25
Width of 8th Stripe 17.25
Width of Last Stripe 17.25
Size of Hoist 3.5


Is it framed? no


Are there stars on obverse? no
Are there stars on reverse? no


Number of Stripes 8
Color of Top Stripe White
Color of Bottom Stripe Red
Has a Blood Stripe? no
Comments on Stripes This flag only contains eight stripes.


Description of Crest/Emblem Union Flag.


Fabric Wool
Comments on Fabric Bunting


Stitching Machine


Type of Weave Plain


Method of Attachment Loop & Toggle


Applique Sides Single Faced = Mirror Image Reverse


All original documents and drawings are held in the Zaricor Flag Collection Archives.
All original documents and drawings are held in the Zaricor Flag Collection Archives.
Research Documents

Public Copy & Signs
All original documents and drawings are held in the Zaricor Flag Collection Archives.


Condition Good
Damage Flag is used, worn and contains some mothing.
Displayable yes


Date 1894